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Contemporary Management Techniques


1. Performance benchmarking involves gathering and comparing quantitative data (i.e., measures or key performance indicators). Performance benchmarking is usually the first step organizations take to identify performance gaps.

2. Practice benchmarking involves gathering and comparing qualitative information about how an activity is conducted through people, processes, and technology.

3. Internal benchmarking compares metrics (performance benchmarking) and/or practices (practice benchmarking) from different units, product lines, departments, programs, geographies, etc., within the organization. 

4. External benchmarking compares metrics and/or practices of one organization to one or many others.


  1. Outsourcing is an agreement in which one company hires another company to be responsible for a planned or existing activity that is or could be done internally and sometimes involves transferring employees and assets from one firm to another.


  3. The term outsourcing, which came from the phrase outside resourcing, originated no later than 1981. The concept, which made its presence felt since the time of the Second World War, often involves the contracting of a business process (e.g., payroll processing, claims processing), operational, and/or non-core functions, such as manufacturing, facility management, call center/call centre support.


  5. The practice of handing over control of public services to private enterprises, even if on a short-term limited basis, may also be described as outsourcing.


  1. Benchmarking

  2. Outsourcing

  3. Insourcing

  4. Re-Engineering

  5. Balanced Scorecard

  6. Corporate Warfare

  7. Lean Management

  8. Kaizen

  9. Simultaneous Engineering

  10. Value Based

  11. Customer Relationship Management (CRM)

  12. Supply Chain Management

  13. Total Quality Management (TQM)

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